Nature park Persina: Flora

In the marshes and wetlands in the Svishtov-Belene plain, the spot marshes and the drainage channels the following plant formations could be found:

– Formations of hydrophytic plants, growing below the water surface and without root contact with the ground – Ceratophylum demersum;

Plant formations consisting of water plant species, keeping their leaves on the water surface and without root contact with the ground – Salvmia natans, A:olla filicoides, Spirodela polirrhiza, Lemna minor. Wolfia arrhiza;

– Plant formations, consisting of plant species keeping their leaves on the water surface and fixed to ground – Potamogeton nodosus, Potamogeton trichoides, Hydroshans morus-ranae, Nymphoides flava, Myriophyllum verticillatum, Mynop/Tyllum spicatum, Trapa natans, Nymphaea alba, Nuphar lutea;

Grass and acidophylous plant formations – consisting of Typha angustifolia, Typha latifolia, Digraphis arundinacea, Phragmites australis;

– Plant formations of high Cyperaceous species – Schoenoplectus lacustris;

Plant formations of intermediate high and low grass species – Glyceria aquatica’,

– Plant formations of intermediate high Cyperaceous and Juncaceous species -Bolboschoenus maritimus, Pycreus longus, Sparganium ramosum, Butomus umbellatus, Oenanthe aquatica.

The forest communities are represented by forests along the river streams and on the islands. Among the most interesting communities from the conservation point of view are these with Populus tremula, Populus alba, Populus nigra, different willow (Salix) species, i’lmiis minor, Tilia atgentea, Tilia grandifolia and some shrubby elements. Also the forest communities include natural stands of Quercus cerris. Quercus pubescens. Carpmus orientalis, Acer campestre, Fraxinus ornus, and artificial stands of Robinia pseudoacacia and Populus x euroamericana.

The natural forest communities on the islands consist of different plant associations, dominated by willows – mainly Sali.x alba. Also the following species participate in the associations: Populus nigra, Populus alba, Ulmus laevis and in the shrubby layer: Amorpha 3

fruticosa and Rubus caesius var. aquations. More rare communities are these dominated by Ulmus laevis, Fraxinus oxycarpa, Populus alba with single individuals of Populus nigra. The zones along the river banks are characterised by different groups of Salix alba and Salix triandra.

The forests on the islands offer habitats of some endangered plant species, such as Leucoium aestivum and Euphorbia lucida.

The non-flooded terraces are characterised by different herbaceous and shrubby plant communities. The herbaceous communities, covering the loess surface are represented by Dishantium ischaemum, Chrysopogon grillus, Cynodon dactilon, Poa bulbosa, P. prate ns is, Ornithogalum tenuifolium, 0. umbellatum, Muscan racemosum, Comandra elegans. Dianthus pallens etc. The herbaceous communities on the calcareous and sandy rocks are sporadically and are mainly of steppe character. The most frequent species are Stipa capillata, Agropyrum criatatum. Kochia prostrata, Artemisia maritima, A. austriacu etc. The shrubby communities are represented by Paliurus aculeatus, Staphyllea pinnata, Prunus spinosa, Berberis vulgans, Crataegus monogyna. Rhus cotinus. Carpmus betulus, Evonymns verrucosus, Syrmga vulgans etc. The rare species that could be find here are: Caragana frtitex. Dianthus kladowanns, Dianthus nardiformis, Chamaecytisus danubialis. Chamaecytisus frivalds:kyanus, Chamaecytisus kovacevii, Hedysarum tanricum etc.