National park Pirin: Flora

The southern position and calcareous structure of Pirin, its nearness to the Mediterranean and relative isolation are some of the factors that determine the uniqueness of the Pirin vegetation.

Pirin is one of the main centers of speciation in Bulgaria. The calcareous parts of northern Pirin are rich in endemic species such as Brassica jordanoffii, Abies borisi-regis and Papaver degenii. Most of the endemic species are of local or restricted regional distribution.

Forests occupy barely 38% of the park`s territory. Deciduous forests cover 3% only. The bare rocky peaks and old white fir and pine forests, which are replaced with large dwarf pine massifs in their upper part, determine the typical appearance of Pirin.

The subalpine belt is situated between 2000 and 2500 m a.s.l. Pinus Montana, Juniperus sibirica, Vaccinium myrtillus, as well as the species of conservation value – Gentiana punctata, Empetrum, Heracleum angustisectum and Brassica jordanoffii are typical of it.

The alpine belt (2500 – 2914 m a.s.l.), comprising the awesome Pirin peaks, impresses with Papaver degenii, Leontopodium alpinum and Salix reticulata.

The total number of the plant species in Pirin is 1100. 70 of them are endemic.

130 species of medicinal plants are found on the territory of the park. The thyme, whortleberry, gentian and mullein are most characteristic. 13 species of medicinal plants are protected and 15 are with special maintenance regime.

Macromycetes in the park are represented by 210 species.