Nature park Shumensko plato: Flora
The geographical position, climatic conditions and the specific lay of land of the Shumensko plateau determine the rich biological diversity of its territory.
Vascular plants form the main part of the vegetation cover. They are 550 species included in 245 genera and 64 families, respectively.
95 tree-shrub and 35 herbaceous ecosystems are characteristic of the park`s phytocoenological composition. Planting with tree species such as black pine, white pine, acacia, lime etc. is implemented on about 15% of its territory.
The tree and shrub ecosystems cover almost 90% of the park`s territory. The herbaceous ecosystems are of secondary importance. In some places they form a typical landscape element together with the rock groupings.
The ecosystems of Fagus silvatica ssp. Moesiaca represent the main part of the vegetation cover and are of high botanical value. They have high canopy – 0.7-0.8 and poorly developed shrub layer, consisting of Corylos, Comus sanguinea, Euonymus europeaus, Crataegus, Prunus divaricata. Fagus moesian belongs to the primary vegetation of the Shumensko plateau. A protected territory – Bukaka reserve with an area of 62,6 ha is proclaimed aiming at protecting this tree species.
The hornbeam ecosystems are distributed mainly on shady exposures. Tree species as Carpinus betulus, Quercus cerris, Quercus frainetto, Carpinus orientalis, Prunus mahaleb, Quercus sessilifornia etc. are found as well.
The ecosysytems of Carpinus orientalis occupy the largest areas. For the most part (about 60%) they form mixed forests. They are distributed mainly in the eastern and southern parts of the park and more often are of shrub type because of the anthropogenic impact. In some places the ecosystems are thinned out and replaced with herbaceous coenoses. 15 tree species, 13 shrub species and over 195 plant species are included in the mixed forests composition.
The ecosystems of hornbeam cover ј of the park`s territory. It also belongs to the primary vegetation of the Shumensko plateau. It is of off-shoot origin and in some places is of a shrub type.
About 6% of the park`s territory is covered with shrub and herbaceous species.
9 protected, 3 endangered and 12 rare plant species are established to date as a result of floristic studies carried out within the park.