Nature park Sinite kamani: Fauna
The fauna of Sinite Kamani is between the submediterranean and subcontinental type. It is similar to the fauna of the Thracian lowland and much more different from the fauna typical of the Balkan Range and sub-Balkan.
The herbaceous formations are habitats of many invertebrates. 3/4 of the day and night butterflies distributed in Bulgaria can be found in the park. 4 of them are Bulgarian endemics, 5 – Balkan endemics and 15 species are rare. 12 endemics and 7 rare species of Coleoptera belonging to Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae, Cerambycidae, Mordellidae families are established over the past years. Lucanus cervus, Rosalia alpina, Colosoma sycophantа etc. can be found in the park.
Vertebrate fauna is represented by more than 235 species. 40 of them are included in the Red Data book of Bulgaria.
Mammalia comprise about 39 species in 6 orders. Roes (Capreolus capreolus), hares (Lepus europaeus), weasels (Mustela nivalis), wild cats (Felis sylvestris) can be frequently found, more rarely martens (Martes martes), marbled polecats (Vormela peregusna) and red deers (Cervus elaphus). 19 reptile species are established on the territory of Sinite Kamani NP – 16 of Squamata, including Vipera ammodites, Vipera berus, Elaphe longssima, Coronella austriaca, Lacerta viridis, Podarcis muralis etc., Testudo graca, Testudo hermanni and Emys orbicularis of Chelonia. Amphibia are represented by 9 species – 3 of Urodela and 6 of Anura.
Aves are almost 70% (145 species) of the Sinite Kamani NP biodiversity. 23 % of them belong to the species of Mediterranean, Turkestanic-Mediterranean, Indoafrican and Paleo-xeromontatic type of distribution. Melanocorypha calandra, Oenanthe hispanica, Hippolais olivetorum and Hippolais pallida, Lanius senator are the most typical among them. 124 species are protected by law. 29 of them are included in the Red Data book of Bulgaria: 20 endangered species – Neophron perenopterus, Circaetus gallicus, 7 rare species – Aquila chrysaetos, Larus ridibundus etc., 2 extinct species – Pelecanus onocrotalus and Gypaetus barbatus. 75 of the 145 species are with nature conservation status on a European scale.
The rock biotopes as a precondition for the nesting of birds of prey are a shelter of 20 species. Falco peregrinus, Accipiter gentilis, Accipiter nisus, Aquila heliaca are among them. 6 species of night birds of prey – Bubo bubo, Tyto alba, Otus scops etc. nest within the natural park.