Nature park Sinite kamani: Flora

The Sinite Kamani Natural park has a diverse vegetable and animal kingdom. The specific geographical position, lay of land, geological structure and the composition of the main rocks are prerequisites for this.

Spermatophytes and Polypodiaceae are represented by 918 species and 21 subspecies of 400 genera and 93 families. Anthropophytes are most numerous– 891 species and 21 subspecies. Pinophytes are 9 species, Polypodiaceae – 18 species. 1 species of Equisetophytes, 22 species of bryophytes and more than 190 species of higher fungi are established. 31 species and 2 subspecies are included in the Red Data book of Bulgaria. 21 of them are rare and 6 – threatened with extinction. 12 species and 1 subspecies are Bulgarian endemics, 1 species – subendemic and 18 species – Balkan endemics. Two of the species are tertiary relicts. 11 species are with international nature protection status. Some of them are Tulipa urumoffii, Dnemone sylvestris etc.

Deciduous forests cover the greatest part of the park`s territory (about 91,7%). The mixed deciduous forests are dominant. The monodominant forests of Fagus silvatica ssp. moesiaca occupy large areas. The shrub and herbaceous communities over a silicate base cover 2% of the territory each. Secondary steppe and dry calciphilic herbaceous communities comprise about 8%.

The formations of Fagus silvatica ssp. moesiaca, Carpinus betulus, Qvercus dalechapii, Qvecus cerris, Acer Pseudoplatanus,Carpinus orientalis are typical of the region.

The herbaceous formations are of secondary origin. They have formed in the place of forests destroyed in the past. Their floristic composition is poorer than this one of forest formations but they are richer in rare species. The formation of Mucrotus arvalis covers rolling plain areas and gentle slopes over brown forest moderately humid soil. It has developed in the place of beech and hornbeam forests. The formation of Andropogon is found in the oak complex, most frequently on eroded dry soils. The formation of Sesleria latifolia has formed in the place of Fagus silvatica ssp. Moesiaca and Carpinus betulus on shallow stoney soils.