Nature park Stranja: Fauna
Invertebrate fauna is poorly investigated. About 60 % of the species found in the region are established to date. A great part of the species is of high conservation value – 119 are endemic, 164 are rare for the country. There are many tertiary relicts among the plant and invertebrate species. 16 species are included in the World Red Data book and 10 – in the European one. The Strandja Natural park is a territory of more than European significance for invertebrate fauna.
Strandja is a Bulgarian protected area of the richest diversity of vertebrate fauna – 261 species. Ichthyofauna includes 40 fresh water and fish of passage species. 15 species are of great conservation value, among which are Rutilus, Cyprinus carpio, Chalacalburnus chalcoides, Alosa bulgarica, Salmo trutta morpha fario, Stizostedion marina etc. Many of them are relicts from the ancient basin comprising the Black sea and the Caspian sea – Sarmat sea. 12 species are included in the Red Data book. 48 fish species, 2 of which are included in the World Red Data book, are found in a one kilometer strip along the seaside.
22 reptile and 10 amphibian species represent the herpethofauna in the park. Testudinadae and Emys orbicularis, Coluber rubriceps, Elaphe longissima, Typhlops vermicularis, Elaphe situla, Elaphe quatuorlineata. sauromates, Ophisaurus apodus, Ablepharus kitaibelii, Pelobates syriacus etc. are of utmost importance
With its 124 species Strandja is among the most important protected areas for the nesting ornithofauna in Bulgaria. The big migratory route Via pontica passes above the park, which explains the big number of birds of passage. A total of 257 species are established within the park. 149 of them are of nature protection significance on a European scale. The natural park is the most significant territory in the country for Alcedo atthis and Picus canus nesting here and among the most important areas for Ciconia nigra, Neophron percnopterus, Circaetus gallicus, Aguila pomarina, Aquila chrysaetos, Hieraaetus pennatos, Bubo bubo, Dendrocopos medius, Ficedula semitorquata. 5 globally endangered species – Phalacrocorax pygmeus, Pelecanus crispus, Aythya nyroca, Crex crex, Acrocephalus paludicola are found in the region during migration.
54 mammal species are established in the park. Bats deserve special attention. They are 21 species. All of them are included in the World Red Data book and the lists of various conventions and agreements. The marten, wolf, marbled polecat, otter and two bat species are included in the national Red Data book. The otter`s population in Veleka river is the most well protected one in Europe.