Nature park Zlatni pjasatsi: Abiotic factors
Nature park Zlatni Pyasatsi encompasses the northeastern part of the Frangensko plateau above the “Golden Sands” and “Chaika” resorts.
The relief is hilly, with a typical landslide and step – like character. Sheer cliff rings mark the boundary between the landslide terrains and the plateau. Several steep ridges slope down from the cliff rings towards the sea. The most known among them are Aladja Monastery – Gorno germe, Chiplak tepe – Zlatni pyasatsi and Kaleto – Bialata stena.
In the southern part of the park several natural swamps can be found. They are constantly supplied from underground waters and that is why they do not dry up even during the hottest summer months. The ravines Smelly Water, Gyurgenlaka and Bati Bunar that cross the park are waterless during most of the year.
Territories with altitude 100 – 200 m are predominant in the park. The average altitude is 110 m and the highest point is 269,3 m. There are no extremely steep slopes which makes all parts of the park accessible.
In geological respect Nature Park Zlatni Pasatsi, situated on the Frangensko plateau, is viewed as part of the structure of the Danube plane. During the Quarternary the repeated rhythmic elevations of the plateau were accompanied by sinkings within the boundaries of the Black Sea basin. Limestones form the surface and the cliff ring of the Frangensko plateau. The rock layers are loosely connected by clay, which is the reason for the instability of the whole structure. As a result there are conditions for the formation of faults, fractures and slides of the earth layers.
The alternation of permeable karstic limestones and sandstones with watertight clays and marls determines the existence of several water-carrying horizons and of active landslides on the east slope of the Frangensko plateau. The waters of the horizons are drained in the landslide terrains and the main underground water deposits are concentrated at depth between 50 and 125 m. The present-day landslide processes are influenced by the level of underground water at a depth of 10 m. This level depends on the climatic factor – it is highest in spring and lowest in autumn.
The territory of the park is covered with grey forest soils. They have considerable clay content. As a whole the territory of Nature Park Zlatni Pyasatsi could be divided in two parts: upper – above the cliff ring where the soils are up to 1 m deep and lower, where soils are deeper (1.20 – 2.00 m). The soils are rich in humus and nitrogen.
In respect to climate Nature Park Zlatni Pyasatsi falls within the Black Sea climate zone, which is a subzone of the Continental -Mediterranean climate zone. The climate is formed on one side under the influence of the atmospheric circulation in the east part of the Balkan Peninsula and on the other side – under the influence of the Black Sea basin. The winter is comparatively mild and wet, with insignificant snowfalls. The spring is cool and windy, the summer is hot and the autumn is warm and extended. The favourable climatic influence of the Black Sea in the region is expressed in the positive and comparatively high winter temperatures (2.3 ?С), the relatively small average annual temperature amplitudes and maximum temperatures that are lower than the country average. Of basic importance for the plant species distribution and most of all for the characteristic plant communities is the relative air humidity. Its maximum is in January and its minimum is in July and August. A typical local wind is the breeze that neutralizes high temperatures in the summer. Rainfalls have continental regime and comparatively low average annual quantity (513 mm). Their maximum is in spring and their minimum is in autumn.